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          上海小學全面推"等第制" 以ABCD取代百分制及排名

          時間:2016-08-29 13:59:00    來源:    瀏覽次數:    我來說兩句() 字號:TT

            看圖說話發現水循環的規律并續寫英文故事,每4人一組根據要求制作不同大小規格的圖形紙片,一邊默讀課文一邊思考批注……你能想象這些生動的課堂將會在9月成為上海中高年級小學生的日常課堂嗎?

            比課堂形式更為誘人的,是上海整個小學生學習評價體系的改變。孩子學得好不好,不再由考試分數說話,而是由教師在日常觀察、書面測驗、口頭測驗、課堂提問、作業分析、學生訪談、過程記錄、表現性任務中進行“打分”。但這種“打分”,不是100分制中的幾十分,而是由A、B、C、D或者優秀、良好、合格、須努力等代替。

            沒有一個學生,會在學期結束后得到一個綜合分數。孩子和家長只會拿到一本厚厚的評價本,它會告訴家長,孩子對某一門學科是否有足夠的興趣,孩子在某一門學科上的學習習慣養成得怎么樣,孩子對某一門學科的知識掌握到什么程度。

            8月25日,中國青年報·中青在線記者從上海市教委獲悉,從今年9月開學開始,上海將全面推行小學“等第制”評價。

            為了一分、兩分打擊孩子積極性到底值不值

            上海市教委基教處調研員朱蕾早在多年前就在上海的某所小學見到過“理想的教育”。如今,她很愿意看到這種理想模式在全國推廣。

            這所學校的一名學生,因為數學總是學不好,信心嚴重不足。有一次,數學老師給他做了10道測試題,他做完后的結果是60分,10道題里有4道題完全不得分。

            令朱蕾欣喜的是,老師并沒有在他的測試卷上寫下難看的“60分”,而是告訴這個學生,如果他能在一周時間內自己學會這些題目,可以給他重新評分。除了自己看書外,他還可以向同學、家長、其他老師求助。

            一周后,當這名學生拿著涂改得亂七八糟、用過各種解題方式的試卷交給老師時,數學老師給了他一個大大的“100分”。

            朱蕾告訴記者,未來,得到這樣“待遇”的學生在上海將不會是個案。因為,根據新的“等第制”評價方式,這樣的學生至少能在“學習興趣”和“學習習慣”兩個重要方面,得到A或者優秀。

            上海市教委教學研究室副主任譚軼斌介紹,目前上海推出的這套“等第制”評價機制與一般的、通過分數來劃分“等第”、換湯不換藥的做法有著本質上的區別,它最大的特點是突出了評價對于學習的促進作用。

            新的評價過程中,教師有沒有給予學生鼓勵至關重要。在對學生某一方面能力作出評價的同時,教師還需要寫上評語——表揚學生在某個方面的特長,指出他在一些方面的不足,鼓勵孩子好好干。

            “這是一套特別適合小學生身心發展的評價體系。”朱蕾說,在小學階段,家長和老師如果“分分計較”,那實在是太不值得了,“你可能因為孩子沒得滿分而批評孩子,但你沒察覺到的是,為了這一兩分,你正讓自己的孩子喪失學習自信和動力”。

            改變評價方式,家長的焦慮你懂嗎

            據中國青年報·中青在線記者了解,目前,“等第制”評價指南已經正式發布并發放至上海各區、各學校,相關培訓與推進工作正在有序進行中。

            學校方面,或許有足夠的時間提前適應評價方式的改變,但家長呢?2013年時,上海開始在小學一、二年級實行基于課程標準的“等第制”評價,其主要特征是不進行書面考試、不用分數評價、不排名、不布置書面作業等。

            這一看似對學生、家長、教師都有好處的科學評價機制,卻在當時被一些家長“吐槽”。一些家長因為擔心一、二年級抓得太松,三年級跟不上,而給孩子在課外報很多補習班。

            如今,小學中高年級的評價制度改革又來了。這難免會讓一些家長摸不著頭腦并且備感焦慮。

            朱蕾說,新的評價體系,實際上是在“解放家長”。

            “你們看到別人家的孩子會自己做作業,自己復習課本,學習成績還很好,會羨慕。你們有沒有看到,同樣的分數背后,別人家是怎么花時間培養孩子學習興趣和習慣的?”朱蕾見過有的家長,為了提高孩子的學習成績,天天陪著孩子做作業,辛苦至極,卻也沒達到理想的成績。她認為,這背后的原因就是家長在孩子小學階段,最應該培養學習習慣和興趣的時候,把眼睛放在了分數上。

            她介紹,評價機制的改變,本身就是為了改變家長、教師對什么是“高質量學業”的看法,繼而改變他們對學生的培養方式,“家長一開始可能會不理解,但我們會堅持這么做,時間長了,他們自然會知道,孩子并不會因此輸在起跑線上”。

            教師如何適應新的評價方法

            另一個問題是教師。中國青年報·中青在線記者翻看小學中高年段語文、數學、英語三科基于課程標準評價指南發現,教師今后的工作量可能會增加。

            比如語文,“學習興趣”一欄需要教師關注學生的聽讀興趣、表達興趣,學習習慣中老師要關注聽的習慣、說的習慣、讀的習慣、寫的習慣,學業成果也需要關注,語言知識、語言運用等都要評價。

            也就是說,教師在授課和課后,都需要利用各種機會觀察學生。這對一名一節課可能要給30多個學生講授的老師而言,似乎難度頗大。

            對此,譚軼斌介紹,評價指南只是給出一些指導評價的案例,并非是統一的評價模式,每所學校可以根據自己的情況在此基礎上創造性發揮。

            并且,“等第制”評價并不倡導教師評價過密、面面俱到。“不要為了評價而評價。”她說,“等第制”評價的目的不是加重老師的負擔,而是讓教師腦子里始終有一根弦,“自己的一句評語或許能改變一個學生對某個學科的學習態度”。

            朱蕾告訴記者,實際上,教師不可能在上課過程中專門為了評價而放慢進度,“評價”更多是融入教師的肢體語言和隨堂用語,“有時候,也可以讓學生之間互相評價。比如同學們都會對某個同學愛動腦筋印象深刻,那有什么不可以?”

            據悉,不同于小學一、二年級的“等第制”評價,中高年級等第制評價會有認知程度上的差異,比如中高年級評價中會有紙筆測試。

            “我們的導向是讓教師不要拔高課程難度、不要加快課程進度,讓孩子在更科學的評價中健康成長。”據朱蕾介紹,此前上海一、二年級“等第制”評價實施后,經第三方調查顯示,這種方式對學生各方面成長都有好處,且家長、教師評價都很高,“既然找到了好方法,為什么不推廣開來?” 王燁捷



          責編:文化中國網 劉銘

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